Enthusiasm for microbiota is growing among scientists and consumers alike. There are several types of microbiota – cutaneous, oral, vaginal, etc. – but intestinal microbiotas remain the best-known (and the ones we will discuss here). Their role in health has been proven study after study. You will be hearing more and more about them.
Historically known as intestinal flora, they are considered as the second brain of the human body. Housed in our digestive tract, this complex set consists of more than 100,000 billion microorganisms: bacteria, micro-fungi, non-pathogenic viruses… All living in symbiosis with the body and capable of “weighing” up to 2 kg!1
The microbiota is unique to each individual: its diversity is a kind of personal fingerprint. Before birth, the microbiota of the fetus is sterile and it is during childbirth that the newborn comes into contact with the first microorganisms. Then, under the effect of infant nutrition, food diversification, genetics, hygiene level, medical treatments and the environment, the microbiota will be built and will evolve, stabilizing between the ages of 3 and 4.
Microbiotas are now known to play an essential role in digestive, metabolic, immune and neurological functions, in particular as a barrier against pathogenic bacteria. They also contribute to the metabolic functions that are essential for digestion.9
Many parameters can lead to dysbiosis, i.e. the qualitative and functional alteration of the intestinal flora: stress, dietary imbalance, taking drugs such as antibiotics, etc.
A healthy microbiota would prevent the development of certain diseases such as type 22 diabetes or obesity,3 while dysbiosis would favor them! Several studies have shown the link between microbiotas and metabolic disorders: these diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation in which the microbiota is involved. This inflammation of the tissues promotes insulin resistance prior to diabetes.9
It is possible to promote the proliferation of quality microbiotas by providing your body with probiotics. In addition to food supplements, they are found in many food products: yoghurts, milks and fermented drinks (ribot milk, kefir, kombucha, etc.), fermented products (sauerkraut, pickles, miso, etc.), soya derivatives (tempeh, natty, etc.), soya derivatives (tempeh, natty, etc.), olives, pickles, beer yeast, blue cheeses (blue, Roquefort, Fourme…) and cheeses with rind (Camembert, Brie, Sainte Maure) or sourdough bread. They are to be distinguished from prebiotics, which are non-digestible fibers that serve as a substrate for probiotics. You can find these fibers in fruits, vegetables and whole grains. However, increase your intake only gradually, as too much fiber can irritate the digestive tract and cause bloating and diarrhea.
1. INSERM, Microbiote intestinal (flore intestinale), 2016
2. Gut Microbiota For Heath, Andrea Hardy, Comment le microbiote intestinal contribue-t-il au diabète de type2 : ce que nous savons déjà, 2018
3. Gut Microbiota For Heath, Cristina saez, La composition du microbiote intestinal en début de vie pourrait aider à prédire le risque d’obésité chez l’enfant, 2019
Menu Week 1 to 12
Menu Week 1 to 12
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Microbiota play an important role in health.
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Enthusiasm for microbiota is growing among scientists and consumers alike.
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